Detail from The Canal, Amsterdam, 1889, James McNeill Whistler, The Hunterian, University of Glasgow


Arrangement in Black: Portrait of F. R. Leyland

Catalogues Raisonnés

  • Young, Andrew McLaren, Margaret F. MacDonald, Robin Spencer, and Hamish Miles, The Paintings of James McNeill Whistler, New Haven and London, 1980 (cat. no. 97), plate 104, as 'Arrangement in Black: Portrait of F. R. Leyland'.
  • MacDonald, Margaret F., James McNeill Whistler. Drawings, Pastels and Watercolours. A Catalogue Raisonné, New Haven and London, 1995 (cat. nos. 425, 426, 720).
  • Margaret F. MacDonald, Grischka Petri, Meg Hausberg, and Joanna Meacock, James McNeill Whistler: The Etchings, a catalogue raisonné, University of Glasgow, 2012, website at (G.106).

Authored by Whistler

  • Whistler, James McNeill, The Gentle Art of Making Enemies, London, 1890, pp. 47-48, under the heading ' "Confidences" with an Editor.'

Catalogues 1855-1905

  • Mr Whistler's Exhibition, Flemish Gallery, 48 Pall Mall, London, 1874 (cat. no. 1) as 'Portrait, "Arrangement in Black" '.
  • Memorial Exhibition of the Works of the late James McNeill Whistler, First President of The International Society of Sculptors, Painters and Gravers, New Gallery, Regent Street, London, 1905 (cat no. 100) as 'Portrait of F. R. Leyland, Esq.' (de luxe edition, repr. f.p. 118).

Newspapers 1855-1905

  • 'Mr Whistler's Pictures', The Hour, London, 11 June 1874, p. 7.
  • 'Exhibition of Mr. Whistler's Pictures', Pall Mall Gazette, London, 13 June 1874, p. 11.

Journals 1855-1905

  • Blackburn, Henry, ' "A Symphony" in Pall Mall', Pictorial World, 13 June 1874.
  • Blanche, Jacques-Émile, 'James McNeill Whistler', Renaissance Latine, vol. 4, no. 6, 15 June 1905, pp. 353-78, at p. 358.


  • None.

Books on Whistler

  • Cary, Elizabeth Luther, The Works of James McNeill Whistler: A Study, with a Tentative List of Artist’s Works, New York, 1907 (cat. no. 443).
  • Curry, David Park, James McNeill Whistler: Uneasy Pieces, New York, 2004, pp. 44-46.
  • Getscher, Robert H., and Paul G. Marks, James McNeill Whistler and John Singer Sargent. Two Annotated Bibliographies, New York and London, 1986, p. 27 (B. 4), p. 275 (L.1a).
  • Glazer, Lee, Emily Jacobsen, Blyth McCarthy, and Katherine Roeder, Whistler in Watercolor. Lovely Little Games, Freer Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, 2019, p. 193, repr.
  • Hartmann, Sadakichi C. (pseudonym of Sidney Allen), The Whistler Book: A Monograph of the Life and Position in Art of James McNeill Whistler, Together with a Careful Study of His More Important Works, Boston, 1910, repr. p. 22.
  • Enaud-Lechien, Isabelle, James Whistler, le peintre et le polémiste (1834-1903), Courbevoie, 1995, p. 68.
  • MacDonald, Margaret F., Susan Galassi, Aileen Ribeiro, and Patricia de Montfort, Whistler, Women and Fashion, New Haven and London, 2003, pp. 96-97, 100, 153, 162, repr. fig. 89.
  • Merrill, Linda, The Peacock Room. A Cultural Biography, New Haven and London, 1998, pp. 20, 109, 122-26, 127-31, 132, 136-38, 278, 280.
  • Pennell, Elizabeth Robins, and Joseph Pennell, The Life of James McNeill Whistler, 2 vols, London and Philadelphia, 1908, vol. 1, pp. 175-77.
  • Pennell, Elizabeth Robins, and Joseph Pennell, The Whistler Journal, Philadelphia, 1921, p. 113.
  • Sickert, Bernhard, Whistler, London and New York, 1908 (cat. no. 42).
  • Sutton, Denys, Nocturne: The Art of James McNeill Whistler, London, 1963, pp. 74-75.
  • Petri, Grischka, Arrangement in Business: The Art Markets and the Career of James McNeill Whistler, Hildesheim, 2011, pp. 149, 172, 194-95, 211-12, 515.
  • Pousette-Dart, Nathaniel, (ed.), James McNeill Whistler,(with introduction by Joseph & Elizabeth Robins Pennell), New York, 1924, repr. pl. 27.
  • Sickert, Bernhard, Whistler, London and New York, 1908, p. 156, no. 42.
  • Spencer, Robin (ed.), Whistler: A Retrospective, New York, 1989, pp. 109-10, repr.
  • Sutherland, Daniel E., Whistler: A Life for Art's Sake, New Haven and London, 2014, p. 117.
  • Walker, John, James McNeill Whistler, New York, 1987, p. 62.
  • Watts-Dunton, Theodore, Nine Letters to Th. Watts-Dunton from J. McN. Whistler, London, 1922, pp. 17-18.
  • Way, Thomas Robert, Memories of James McNeill Whistler, the Artist, London and New York, 1912, p. 29.

Books, General

  • Doughty, Oswald & Wahl, John Robert (eds.), Letters of Dante Gabriel Rossetti, 4 vols, Oxford, 1965-67, vol. 3, pp. 1287, 1307.
  • Lawton, Thomas, Freer: a Legacy of Art, Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, 1993, p. 38.
  • Newell, Kate, Expanding Adaptation Networks: From Illustration to Novelization, London, 2017, p. 77.

Catalogues 1906-Present


  • Curry, David Park, James McNeill Whistler at the Freer Gallery of Art, New York and London, 1984, pp. 113, 292, pl. 15.
  • Stubbs, Burns A., Paintings, Pastels, Drawings, Prints and Copper Plates by and attributed to American and European Artists, together with a List of Original Whistleriana in the Freer Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, 1948, p. 13 (05.100).


  • Paintings in oil and pastel by James McNeill Whistler, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1910 (cat. no. 100).
  • Selection of Art Objects from The Freer Collection, National Museum, Washington, DC, 1912 (cat. no. 21) as 'Portrait of Leyland'.
  • Exhibition, University of Michigan Club, house of C. L. Freer, Detroit, 1914 (cat no. 16).
  • Walter and H. Greaves (Pupils of Whistler), Goupil Gallery, London, 1922, pp. 19-20 (not exhibited).
  • MacDonald, Margaret F., Whistler. The Graphic Work: Amsterdam, Liverpool, London, Venice, Agnew and Sons, London; Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool; City Art Gallery, Glasgow, 1976, pp. 30, 80 (not exhibited).
  • Getscher, Robert, The Stamp of Whistler, Allen Memorial Art Museum, Oberlin College, Oberlin, OH, 1977 (cat. no. 14) (not exhibited).
  • Stoner, Joyce Hill, 'Materials for Immateriality', in Simpson, Marc, Like Breath on Glass: Whistler, Inness, and the Art of Painting Softly, Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, MA, 2008, pp. 91-109, at pp. 94-95; (not exhibited).

Journals 1906-Present

  • Mechlin, Leila, 'The Freer Collection of Art', Century Magazine, New York, vol. 73, January 1907, pp. 357-68, at p. 359, repr. p. 364.
  • Dreyfus, Albert, 'James Abbott MacNeill Whistler', Die Kunst für Alle, 1907, vol. 22, pp. 201-16, repr. p. 218.
  • Abbott, K. (ed.), Whistler, A. McN., ‘The Lady of the Portrait, Letters of Whistler’s Mother’, Atlantic Monthly, vol. 136, 1925, pp. 310-28, at pp. 326-27.
  • Ferriday, Peter, 'The Peacock Room', Architectural Review, vol. 125, 1959, pp. 407-14, at pp. 408-09.
  • MacDonald, Margaret F., 'Whistler: The Painting of the “Mother” ', Gazette des beaux-arts, vol. 85, February 1975, pp. 73-88, at p. 80.
  • Hobbs, Susan, 'A Connoisseur's Vision: The American Collection of Charles Lang Freer', American Art Review, vol. 4, August 1977, pp. 76-101, at p. 98.
  • Spencer, Robin, 'Whistler's First One-Man Exhibition Reconstructed' in: Gabriel P. Weisberg, Laurinda S. Dixon, and Antje Bultmann Lemke (eds), The Documented Image: Visions in Art History, Syracuse, New York, 1987, pp. 27-49.


  • Freer Gallery of Art website at


  • Revillon, Joseph Whistler, Draft Catalogue Raisonné of the Paintings of J. McN. Whistler, [ca 1945-1955], Glasgow University Library (cat. no. 117).


  • Parkerson, Sarah Lawrence, Variations in Gold: The Stylistic Development of the Picture Frames used by James McNeill Whistlers, PhD thesis, University of Glasgow, 2007.
  • Siewert, John, 'Whistler’s Nocturnes and the Aesthetic Subject', PhD thesis, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1994, p. 207.

Last updated: 23rd April 2021 by Margaret