Detail from The Canal, Amsterdam, 1889, James McNeill Whistler, The Hunterian, University of Glasgow


Nocturne: Black and Gold – The Fire Wheel

Catalogues Raisonnés

  • Young, Andrew McLaren, Margaret F. MacDonald, Robin Spencer, and Hamish Miles, The Paintings of James McNeill Whistler, New Haven and London, 1980 (cat. no. 169), plate 152, as 'Nocturne: Black and Gold – The Fire Wheel'.
  • MacDonald, Margaret F., James McNeill Whistler. Drawings, Pastels and Watercolours. A Catalogue Raisonné, New Haven and London, 1995 (cat. nos. 723, 910, 1359, 1427).

Authored by Whistler

  • Ve Exposition des XX, Société des XX, Brussels, 1888 (cat. no. 2) repr. drawing by Whistler.
  • Nocturnes, Marines & Chevalet Pieces, Goupil Gallery, London, 1892 (cat. no. 7).
  • Goupil Gallery and James McNeill Whistler, Nocturnes, Marines & Chevalet Pieces [portfolio of photographs published after the Goupil Gallery Exhibition, March-April 1892], London, 1892, repr. pl. 1.

Catalogues 1855-1905

  • VII Summer Exhibition, Grosvenor Gallery, London, 1883 (cat. no. 115) as 'Nocturne in Black and Gold – The Great Fire Wheel'.
  • Possibly International Exhibition, Edinburgh, 1886 (cat. no. 1399) as 'Nocturne'.
  • Possibly Exposition Internationale de Peinture et de Sculpture, Galerie Georges Petit, Paris, 1887 (cat. no. 212) as 'Nocturne en noir et or'.
  • Ve Exposition des XX, Société des XX, Brussels, 1888 (cat. no. 2) as ' "Nocturne en noir et or. No. 2." Souvenir de Cremorne'.
  • III. Internationale Kunst-Ausstellung, Königlicher Glaspalast, Munich, 1888 (cat. no. 2455) as 'Nachtstück in Schwarz und Gold: Das Feuerad'.
  • “Notes” – “Harmonies” – “Nocturnes”, H. Wunderlich & Co., New York, 1889 (cat. no. 54) as 'Nocturne in Black & Gold – The Fire Wheel'.
  • Ouvrages de peinture, sculpture, architecture, gravure et lithographie des artistes vivants, 105th exhibition, Salon de la Société des artistes français, Palais des Champs Elysées, Paris, 1890 (cat. no. 2440) as 'Nocturne en noir et or'.
  • Nocturnes, Marines & Chevalet Pieces, Goupil Gallery, London, 1892 (cat. no. 7) as 'Nocturne – Black and Gold / The Fire Wheel'.
  • Exposition Nationale des Beaux-Arts, Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts, Champ-de-Mars, Paris, 1892 ( as 'Nocturne – Roue de Feu'.
  • Große Kunst-Ausstellung des Kunst-Vereins in der Kunsthalle Hamburg, Hamburg, 1894.
  • Exposition Universelle des Beaux-Arts, Antwerp, 1894 (cat. no. 2370) as 'Nocturne noir et or'.
  • Allmänna konst- och industriutställningen, Stockholm, 1897, as 'Fyrverkeri'.
  • Twenty-fourth Annual Exhibition, Society of American Artists, New York, 1902, as 'Nocturne, Black and Gold'.
  • Oil Paintings, Water Colors, Pastels and Drawings: Memorial Exhibition of the Works of Mr. J. McNeill Whistler, Copley Society, Boston, 1904 (cat. no. 66) as 'Nocturne in Black and Gold "The Falling Rocket".
  • Œuvres de James McNeill Whistler, Palais de l'Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, 1905 (cat. no. 65) as 'Nocturne. Noir et or. La roue de feu. (Nocturne. Black and Gold. The Fire Wheel.)'.

Newspapers 1855-1905

  • Anon., 'Our London Letter', Bristol Times and Mirror, Bristol, 30 April 1883, p. 3 (syndicated).
  • Anon., 'Our London Correspondent', The Ipswich Journal, Ipswich, 1 May 1883, p .2.
  • Anon., 'The Grosvenor Gallery', Pall Mall Gazette, 2 May 1883, p. 4.
  • Anon., 'The Grosvenor Gallery', Sheffield Daily Telegraph, Sheffield, 10 May 1883, p. 4.
  • Anon., 'The Grosvenor Gallery', Dundee Advertiser, Dundee, 25 May 1883, p. 9.
  • Anon., 'The Grosvenor Gallery', Daily Telegraph and Courier, London, 27 June 1883, p. 2.
  • 'Scandinavia’s Fair', The Chicago Daily Inter Ocean, Chicago, 5 September 1897, p. 35.
  • 'Konstutställningen. Internationell konst', Dagens Nyheter, Stockholm, 6 September 1897, p. 3.

Journals 1855-1905

  • Bénédite, Léonce, L'Oeuvre de James MacNeill Whistler, Paris, 1905, repr. pl. 37.
  • Blackburn, Henry, Grosvenor Notes, London, 1883, p. 29.
  • Geffroy, Gustave, 'Le Salon des Champs-Elysées', Revue d'Aujourd'hui, 1 May 1890, pp. 294-95, at p. 295.
  • Geffroy, Gustave, 'Salons de 1892', Vie Artistique, vol. 2, 1893, pp. 322-25, at p. 323.
  • Graves, Algernon, 'James Abbott McNeill Whistler', Printseller and Print Collector, vol. 1, August 1903, pp. 341-45, at p. 341.


  • None.

Books on Whistler

  • Cary, Elizabeth Luther, The Works of James McNeill Whistler: A Study, with a Tentative List of Artist’s Works, New York, 1907 (cat. no. 66).
  • Glazer, Lee, Emily Jacobsen, Blyth McCarthy, and Katherine Roeder, Whistler in Watercolor. Lovely Little Games, Freer Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, 2019, p. 231, repr. p. 230.
  • Pennell, Elizabeth Robins, and Joseph Pennell, The Life of James McNeill Whistler, 2 vols, London and Philadelphia, 1908, vol. 1, p. 228.
  • Sickert, Bernhard, Whistler, London and New York, 1908 (cat. no. 66).
  • Way, Thomas Robert, and G. R. Dennis, The Art of James McNeill Whistler: An Appreciation, 1st edition, London, 1903, pp. 59-60.

Books, General

  • Denney, Colleen, At the Temple of Art: The Grosvenor Gallery, 1877-1890, Madison, NJ, 1999, pp. 111, 113, 116.
  • Hobson, G. D., Some Thoughts on the Organisation o f Art after the War, London, [1946], pp. 37-38.
  • Ludovici, Anthony, An Artist's Life in London and Paris 1870-1925, New York, 1926, pp. 90-91.
  • Maus, Madeleine Octave, Trente Années de lutte pour l'Art 1884-1914, Brussels, 1926, p. 70, repr. drawing by Whistler.
  • Spassky, Natalie, with Linda Bantel, Doreen Bolger Burke, Meg Perlman, and Amy L. Walsh, American Paintings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art, vol. 2, A Catalogue of Works by Artists Born between 1816 and 1845, New York, 1985, p. 367, on Cremorne Gardens, No. 2.

Catalogues 1906-Present


  • Davies, Martin, National Gallery Catalogues: British School, London, 1946, p. 172.


  • Young, A. McLaren, James McNeill Whistler, Arts Council Gallery, London, and Knoedler Galleries, New York, 1960 (cat. nos. 34 and 92).
  • Dorment, Richard, and Margaret F. MacDonald, James McNeill Whistler, Tate Gallery, London, Musée d’Orsay, Paris, and National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, 1994-1995 (cat. no. 56).
  • Merrill, Linda, et al., After Whistler: The Artist and His Influence on American Painting, High Museum of Art, Atlanta, 2003, pp. 21, 106, 148, 214, repr. fig. 12 (not exhibited).
  • Andreeva, Galina, and Margaret F. MacDonald, Whistler and Russia, State Tretyakow Gallery, Moscow, 2006 (cat. no. 13), pp. 114, 183, repr. p. 114.
  • Simpson, Marc, 'Whistler, Modernism, and the Creative Afflatus', in Simpson, Marc, Like Breath on Glass: Whistler, Inness, and the Art of Painting Softly, Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, MA, 2008, pp. 24-51, at p. 37, pl. 3.
  • MacDonald, Margaret F., and Patricia de Montfort, An American in London: Whistler and the Thames, Dulwich Picture Gallery, London, 2013; Addison Gallery of American Art, Andover, 2014; Freer Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, 2014 (cat. no. 134).

Journals 1906-Present

  • Laughton, Bruce, ‘The British and American contribution to Les XX 1884-93’, Apollo, 86, November 1967, pp. 373-79, at p. 378.
  • Stone, Elizabeth Doe, ‘American Art at the 1897 Stockholm Exhibition’, Konsthistorisk tidskrift/Journal of Art History, 2020; DOI: 10.1080/00233609.2020.1848913.


  • Tate website at


  • Revillon, Joseph Whistler, Draft Catalogue Raisonné of the Paintings of J. McN. Whistler, [ca 1945-1955], Glasgow University Library (cat. no. 92) 'Nocturne, black and gold: The fire wheel'.


  • Stoner, Joyce Hill, Textured Surfaces: Technique, Facture, and Friendship in the Work of James McNeill Whistler, Ph.D, University of Delaware, 1995.

Last updated: 20th May 2021 by Margaret