Detail from The Canal, Amsterdam, 1889, James McNeill Whistler, The Hunterian, University of Glasgow


Sea and Rain

Catalogues Raisonnés

  • Young, Andrew McLaren, Margaret F. MacDonald, Robin Spencer, and Hamish Miles, The Paintings of James McNeill Whistler, New Haven and London, 1980 (cat. no. 65), plate 54 as 'Sea and Rain'.

Authored by Whistler

  • None.

Catalogues 1855-1905

  • 99th Exhibition of the Royal Academy of Arts, London, 1867 (cat. no. 670) as 'Sea and Rain'.
  • II Summer Exhibition, Grosvenor Gallery, London, 1878 (cat. no. 52) as 'Harmony in Blue and Yellow'.
  • Blackburn, Henry, Grosvenor Notes, London, 1878, p. 20.
  • Possibly Ouvrages de peinture, sculpture, architecture, gravure et lithographie des artistes vivants, 101st exhibition, Salon de la Société des artistes français, Palais des Champs Elysées, Paris, 1883 (cat. no. 4) as 'Harmonie en bleu et argent'.
  • A Connoisseur's Treasures [Alexander Ionides Collection], Goupil Gallery, London, 1895 (cat. no. 12).
  • Thirty-sixth Exhibition of Works of Modern Artists, Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts, Glasgow, 1897 (cat. no. 107).
  • Memorial Exhibition of the Works of the late James McNeill Whistler, First President of The International Society of Sculptors, Painters and Gravers, New Gallery, Regent Street, London, 1905 (cat. no. 3) as 'Seascape' in ordinary edition and 'Sea and Rain' in deluxe edition.

Newspapers 1855-1905

  • Anon., 'The Royal Academy Exhibition', Pall Mall Gazette, London, 11 May 1867, pp. 10-11.
  • Anon., Daily Telegraph, London, 31 May 1867 [press cutting in GUL Whistler PC1, p. 27].
  • Anon., 'Fine Arts', Illustrated Times, London, 8 June 1867, p. 11.
  • Anon., 'Exhibition of the Royal Academy', The Atlas, 6 July 1867, pp. 5-6 at p. 6.
  • Anon., 'The Grosvenor Gallery,' The Times, London, 2 May 1878, p. 7.
  • Anon., 'Fine Art Exhibition at Glasgow', Dundee Courier, Dundee, 5 February 1897, p. 5.
  • Anon., Dundee Advertiser, Dundee, 5 February 1897, p. 5.

Journals 1855-1905

  • Stephens, F. G., 'Fine Arts. Royal Academy', The Athenaeum, 18 May 1867.
  • [Hamerton, Philip Gilbert], 'Pictures of the Year', Saturday Review, vol. 23, 1 June 1867, pp. 690-91, at p. 691.
  • Moore, George, 'The End of the Season', The Speaker: A Review of Politics, Letters, Science and the Arts, vol. 8, 27 July 1895, pp. 97-98, at p. 98.


  • None.

Books on Whistler

  • Cary, Elizabeth Luther, The Works of James McNeill Whistler: A Study, with a Tentative List of Artist’s Works, New York, 1907 p. 211, cat. no. 367.
  • Cheney, Liana DeGirolami, and Paul G. Marks, The Whistler Papers, Whistler House Museum, Lowell, MA, 1986, p. 182.
  • MacDonald, Margaret F., 'Joanna Hiffernan and James Whistler: an Artistic Partnership' in Margaret F. MacDonald (ed.), The Woman in White: Joanna Hiffernan and James McNeill Whistler, New Haven and Washington, 2020, pp. 15-31, at p. 25; re[r. p. 113.
  • Pennell, Elizabeth Robins, and Joseph Pennell, The Life of James McNeill Whistler, 2 vols, London and Philadelphia, 1908, vol. 1, pp. 133, 137, 144; vol. 2, p. 127.
  • Petri, Grischka, Arrangement in Business: The Art Markets and the Career of James McNeill Whistler, Hildesheim, 2011, pp. 113, 116, 444, 686.
  • Sickert, Bernhard, Whistler, London and New York, 1908.
  • Spencer, Robin, Whistler, New York, 1990, pp. 62-63.
  • Sutherland, Daniel E., Whistler: A Life for Art's Sake, New Haven and London, 2014, pp. 94, 102.

Books, General

  • Hermann, Luke, Nineteenth Century British Painting, London, 2000, p. 355.
  • Huguet, ‎Christine, and Fabienne Dabrigeon-Garcier (eds), George Moore: Across Borders, (DQR Studies in Literature), Amsterdam/New York, pp. 71-72.
  • Riat, Georges, Gustave Courbet, Paris, 1906, pp. 228, 230.
  • Rossetti, William Michael (ed.), Rossetti Papers, 1862-1870, London, 1903, pp. 222, 228.

Catalogues 1906-Present

  • Aldiss, S. (ed.), Eighty Works in the Collection of the University of Michigan Museum of Art: A Handbook, Ann Arbor, MI, 1979, pp. 61-62.
  • American Classics of the Nineteenth Century, Carnegie Institute of Arts, Pittsburg, 1957 (cat. no. 52).
  • Spink, Nesta, Whistler: The Later Years, University of Michigan Art Gallery, Ann Arbor, 1978 (checklist, cat. no. 39).
  • Tinterow, Gary, and Henri Loyrette, Origins of Impressionism, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1994 (cat. no. 193).

Journals 1906-Present

  • Anon., ‘Accessions; Anonymous Loan Collection’, Bulletin of the Detroit Museum of Art, vol. 12, February 1918, pp. 25-27.
  • Barrows, Herbert, 'Four Works by Whistler', Bulletin of the University of Michigan Museum of Art, no. 7, April 1956, pp. 25-31, at pp. 27-28, repr. fig. 17.


  • University of Michigan website at


  • Revillon, Joseph Whistler, Draft Catalogue Raisonné of the Paintings of J. McN. Whistler, [ca 1945-1955], Glasgow University Library (cat. no. 380).


  • Siewert, John, 'Whistler’s Nocturnes and the Aesthetic Subject', PhD thesis, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1994, p. 51.

Last updated: 11th November 2021 by Margaret