Detail from The Canal, Amsterdam, 1889, James McNeill Whistler, The Hunterian, University of Glasgow

Home  > Catalogue > Exhibitions > Kyoto-2014 (related works) > Search Display

Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso

Catalogues Raisonnés

  • Young, Andrew McLaren, Margaret F. MacDonald, Robin Spencer, and Hamish Miles, The Paintings of James McNeill Whistler, New Haven and London, 1980 (cat. no. 73), plate 57 as 'Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso'.

Authored by Whistler

  • [Whistler, James McNeill, and Goupil Gallery (eds)], Nocturnes, Marines & Chevalet Pieces: Small Collection Kindly Lent by Their Owners, London, 1892 (cat. no. 13) as 'Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso'.
  • Goupil Gallery and James McNeill Whistler, Nocturnes, Marines & Chevalet Pieces [portfolio of photographs published after the Goupil Gallery Exhibition, March-April 1892], London, 1892, repr. pl. 12.

Catalogues 1855-1905

  • Probably 15th Annual Winter Exhibition of Cabinet Pictures of British and Foreign Artists, Dudley Gallery, London, 1867 (not catalogued).
  • Exposition Universelle/ Universal Exhibition, Paris, 1867 (1st edition, cat. no. 71) as 'Twilight At Sea' or (2nd edition, cat. no. 78) as 'Twilight on the Ocean'.
  • III Summer Exhibition, Grosvenor Gallery, London, 1879 (cat. no. 56) as 'The Pacific; Harmony in Green and Gold'.
  • Blackburn, Henry, Grosvenor Notes, London, 1879, p. 24 'The Pacific; Harmony in Green and Gold'.
  • 1st exhibition, Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts, Champs de Mars, Paris, 1891 (cat. no. 937) as 'Marine (harmonie en vert et opale)'.
  • Nocturnes, Marines & Chevalet Pieces, Goupil Gallery, London, 1892 (cat. no. 13) as 'Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso'.
  • Illustrierter Katalog der VI. Internationalen Kunst-Ausstellung 1892 im Kgl. Glaspalaste, Munich, 1892 (cat. no. 1950c) as 'Dämmerung'.
  • Société royale d'encouragement des beaux-arts (ed.), Exposition Universelle des Beaux-Arts, 1894: Catalogue Général Illustré, Antwerp, 1894 (cat. no. 2368) as 'Harmonie couleur chair et vert; Valparaiso'.
  • III Esposizione Internazionale d'Arte della Città di Venezia, Venice, 1899 (cat. no. 59) as 'Valparaiso Marina'.
  • Memorial Exhibition of the Works of the late James McNeill Whistler, First President of The International Society of Sculptors, Painters and Gravers, New Gallery, Regent Street, London, 1905 (cat. no. 93) as 'Valparaiso, Nocturne'.
  • Œuvres de James McNeill Whistler, Palais de l'Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, 1905 (cat. no. 59) as 'Couleur chair et vert. Crépuscule, Valparaiso. – (Crepuscule. Flesh Color and Green. Valparaiso.)'.

Newspapers 1855-1905

  • Anon., 'The Society of French Artists', Pall Mall Gazette, 28 November 1872, p. 11.
  • Anon., 'The Grosvenor Gallery', London Evening Standard, 1 May 1879, p. 2.
  • Anon., 'Opening of the Grosvenor Gallery', North British Daily, Lanarkshire, 1 May 1879, pp. 4-5.
  • Anon., 'The Grosvenor Gallery', Leeds Mercury, 2 May 1879, p. 8.
  • Anon., 'A Gaiety in Gilt, and three Noctoffs in a Twinkle. Connie soit qui mal y pense', The Mask, London, vol. 2, 17 May 1879, caricature repr. p. 4.
  • Anon., 'Notes on Current Topics', Yorkshire Post and Leeds Intelligencer, Leeds, 21 March 1892, p. 4.
  • Anon., 'Art Exhibitions. Mr. Whistler's Pictures', St James's Gazette, London, 21 March 1892.
  • Anon., 'The Whistler Exhibition', Manchester Guardian, Manchester, 25 March 1892.
  • Anon., 'Mr. Whistler at Goupil's', The Observer, London, 27 March 1892.

Journals 1855-1905

  • Anon., 'The Winter Exhibition at the French Gallery', The Athenaeum, 5 January 1867, pp. 22-23.
  • [Hamerton, Philip Gilbert], 'Pictures of the Year', Saturday Review, vol. 23, 1 June 1867, pp. 690-91, at p. 691.
  • 'The Grosvenor Gallery Exhibition', The Athenaeum, no. 2689, 10 May 1879, pp. 606-08, at p. 607.
  • The Mask, 17 May 1879, cartoon repr.
  • Brownell, William C., 'Whistler in Painting and Etching', Scribner's Monthly, vol. 18, no. 4, August 1879, pp. 481-95.
  • Гюисман, И . [Huysmans, I.], 'Уистлер' [Uistler], Мир искусства [Mir Iskusstva, 'World of Art'], vol. 2, nos. 16-17, 1899, pp. 61-68, repr. p. 64.
  • Bénédite, Léonce, L'Oeuvre de James MacNeill Whistler, Paris, 1905, repr. pl. 33.


  • None.

Books on Whistler

  • Cary, Elizabeth Luther, The Works of James McNeill Whistler: A Study, with a Tentative List of Artist’s Works, New York, 1907 (cat. no. 214).
  • Eddy, Arthur Jerome, Recollections and Impressions of James A. McNeill Whistler, Philadelphia and London, 1903, p. 23.
  • Pennell, Elizabeth Robins, and Joseph Pennell, The Life of James McNeill Whistler, 2 vols, London and Philadelphia, 1908, vol. 1, pp. 134-36, 139-40, 258; vol. 2, p. 226.
  • Pennell, Elizabeth Robins, and Joseph Pennell, The Whistler Journal, Philadelphia, 1921, pp. 42-43, 279.
  • Petri, Grischka, Arrangement in Business: The Art Markets and the Career of James McNeill Whistler, Hildesheim, 2011, pp. 115, 119, 120, 457, 707.
  • Sickert, Bernhard, Whistler, London and New York, 1908 (cat. no. 17).
  • Sutherland, Daniel E., Whistler: A Life for Art's Sake, New Haven and London, 2014, pp. 95-97, 101, 251, 256.
  • Way, Thomas Robert, Memories of James McNeill Whistler, the Artist, London and New York, 1912, p. 32.

Books, General

  • Fattal, ‎Laura Rachel Felleman, and Carol Salus (eds), Out of Context: American Artists Abroad, in series Contributions to the study of art and architecture, Westport, CT, 2004, p. 14-15.
  • Fink, Lois Marie, American Art at the Nineteenth Century Paris Salons, Cambridge, 1990, repr. p. 262.
  • Gaunt, William, Marine Painting: An historical survey, London, 1975, p. 168, repr. p. 169.
  • Hackney, Stephen, and Joyce Townsend, 'J. A. M. Whistler: Cremorne Lights 1872', in: Hackney, Stephen, R. Jones, and Joyce Townsend (eds), Paint and Purpose: A Study of Technique in British art, Tate Publishing, London, 1999, pp. 86-89.
  • Painter, George D. (ed.), Marcel Proust - Letters to his mother, London, 1956.
  • Robertson, W. Graham, Time Was: the Reminiscences of W. Graham Robertson, London and New York, 1931, p. 188.

Catalogues 1906-Present

  • Dorment, Richard, and Margaret F. MacDonald, James McNeill Whistler, Tate Gallery, London, Musée d’Orsay, Paris, and National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, 1994-1995 (cat. no. 44) repr. p. 118.
  • Merrill, Linda, et al., After Whistler: The Artist and His Influence on American Painting, High Museum of Art, Atlanta, 2003, p. 384.
  • Andreeva, Galina, and Margaret F. MacDonald, Whistler and Russia, State Tretyakow Gallery, Moscow, 2006, pp. 107, 182 (cat. no. 5), repr. p. 107.
  • Ayako Ono, ホイッスラー展. James McNeill Whistler Retrospective, National Museum of Modern Art, Kyōto, 2014, and Yokohama Museum of Art, 2014–2015 (cat. no. 74).

Journals 1906-Present

  • Pevsner, Nicolaus, ‘Whistler’s Valparaiso Harbour at the Tate Gallery’, Burlington Magazine, vol. 79, October 1941, pp. 115-17, 121, at pp. 115-17.
  • Hackney, Stephen, ‘Colour and tone in Whistler’s “Nocturnes” and “Harmonies” 1871-72’, The Burlington Magazine, vol. 136, 1994, pp. 695-99.
  • Sutherland, Daniel E., 'James McNeill Whistler in Chile: Portrait of the Artist as Arms Dealer', American Nineteenth Century History, vol. 9, 2008, pp. 61-73.


  • Fowle, Frances, 'Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso', 2000, Tate website at


  • Revillon, Joseph Whistler, Draft Catalogue Raisonné of the Paintings of J. McN. Whistler, [ca 1945-1955], Glasgow University Library (cat. no. 42) 'Valparaiso, Crepuscule in flesh-colour and green / Twilight on the ocean: Green and opal / Valparaiso, nocturne'.


  • Parkerson, Sarah Lawrence, Variations in Gold: The Stylistic Development of the Picture Frames used by James McNeill Whistlers, PhD thesis, University of Glasgow, 2007.

Last updated: 22nd May 2021 by Margaret